KETUBBOT

Depictions of the Holy City and the Temple, Padua, Italy, 1732. Parchment, tempera, gold powder, pen and ink, 88.7 59 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Depictions of the Holy City and the Temple, Padua, Italy, 1732. Parchment, tempera, gold powder, pen and ink, 88.7 × 59 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.   A DOCUMENT, IN ARAMAIC, RECORDING THE FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS WHICH THE HUSBAND UNDERTAKES TOWARD HIS WIFE IN RESPECT OF, AND CONSEQUENT TO, THEIR MARRIAGE; OBLIGATIONS WHICH IN PRINCIPLE ARE IMPOSED ON HIM BY JEWISH LAW.   Assortment of flowers and leaves of a marriage contract, Sana, Yemen, 1794. Parchment, gouache, pen and ink, 42 26 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Assortment of flowers and leaves of a marriage contract, San'a, Yemen, 1794. Parchment, gouache, pen and ink, 42 × 26 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     A marriage contract depicted as a gate, Amsterdam, 1617. Parchment, tempera, gold powder, pen and ink, 61.1 48 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. A marriage contract depicted as a gate, Amsterdam, 1617. Parchment, tempera, gold powder, pen and ink, 61.1 × 48 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     Floral marriage contract, Achiska (Akhaltsik), Georgia 1865. Paper, watercolor, pen and ink, 57 40 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem., Georgia 1865. Paper, watercolor, pen and ink, 57 40 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.") Floral marriage contract, Achiska (Akhaltsik), Georgia 1865. Paper, watercolor, pen and ink, 57 × 40 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     Leaf-motif marriage contract, Singapore, 1880. Parchment, watercolor, pen and ink, 53.8 44.3 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak. Leaf-motif marriage contract, Singapore, 1880. Parchment, watercolor, pen and ink, 53.8 × 44.3 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.     Marriage contract depicting various scenes in the Bible, Rome, Italy, 1734. Parchment, tempera, pen and ink, 94 59 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor. Marriage contract depicting various scenes in the Bible, Rome, Italy, 1734. Parchment, tempera, pen and ink, 94 × 59 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor.     Marriage contract with decorative flowers, Tunis, Tunisia, 1822. Parchment, gouache, pen and ink, 57.5 52 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Marriage contract with decorative flowers, Tunis, Tunisia, 1822. Parchment, gouache, pen and ink, 57.5 × 52 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     Floral marriage contract, Meshed, Iran, 1887 (Hijra 1309). Paper, watercolor, gold powder, paper bands, pen and ink, 98.5 68.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.. Paper, watercolor, gold powder, paper bands, pen and ink, 98.5 68.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.") Floral marriage contract, Meshed, Iran, 1887 (Hijra 1309). Paper, watercolor, gold powder, paper bands, pen and ink, 98.5 × 68.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.   Petal-design marriage contract, Turin, Italy, 1691. Parchment, tempera, pen and ink, 54 45 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Petal-design marriage contract, Turin, Italy, 1691. Parchment, tempera, pen and ink, 54 × 45 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.   Bride and groom depicted as a lion and an eagle, Essaouria (Mogador) Morocco, 1868. Parchment, tempera, watercolor, pen and ink, 60 50 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Morocco, 1868. Parchment, tempera, watercolor, pen and ink, 60 50 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.") Bride and groom depicted as a lion and an eagle, Essaouria (Mogador) Morocco, 1868. Parchment, tempera, watercolor, pen and ink, 60 × 50 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Nahum Slapak.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 13 LIF–MEK FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. 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Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries JA–KAS 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 803 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 804 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 810 • Transliteration Rules 823 Glossary 826 LIFE AND DEATH In Jewish thought both life and death are part of the divine plan for the world. -Life The opening chapter of Genesis states that all things are created by God. They are, therefore, all purposeful. They all have some value, as is clearly implicit in God's judgment on the created order: "God saw everything He had made, and behold, it was very good" (Gen. 1:31). But it is man who is at the apex of creation and the highest level in the order of value. All other things were created for his sake and constitute the theater of his operation and creative ingenuity. Since life is the highest good, man is obliged to cherish it and preserve it. Every person is under mandate to marry and procreate in order to share in perpetuating the human species (Yev. 63b). He must preserve himself in a state of health. The Talmud includes many rules of hygiene and cautions against making one's home in a community where there is no competent physician (Sanh. 17b). Maimonides included a chapter on rules of health in his code Mishneh Torah, since "the preservation of the health of the body is one of the godly ways" (Yad 4). The rabbis ruled that the preservation of life supersedes the fulfillment of all commandments, except the prohibitions against murder, unchastity, and idolatry (Yoma 82a). One should be concerned as much with the preservation of others' lives as with one's own life. Rabbi Akiva regarded the commandment to love one's neighbor as oneself the most fundamental precept of the Torah (Sifra 19:18). Whoever sustains a single person, taught the rabbis, is as one who sustains the whole world, and whoever destroys a single person is as one who destroys the whole world; for every person bears the divine image, and every person was created unique and irreplaceable. Each one, therefore, has a right to say: "For my sake was the world created" (Sanh. 4:5). Indeed, man's obligations are not limited to his fellowmen. They extend to all existence. He must not wantonly and unnecessarily destroy any object in the world nor inflict pain on any living creature. In this spirit the 18th-century rabbi Ezekiel Judah landau forbade hunting (S. Wind, Rav Yeḥezekel Landau (1961), 54). In stressing the sanctity of human life, the rabbis often   went beyond biblical precedent. For example, the Bible calls for capital punishment for a wide variety of crimes, but the rabbis limited such punishment to conditions which in effect made the law inoperative. The Mishnah brands a court that imposes a sentence of capital punishment once in seven years, or according to another tradition, once in 70 years, a murderous court (Mak. 1:10). -Death In view of the high value attached to man, death, which puts an end to man and his achievements, is the most baffling phenomenon. The account of Adam's sin (Gen. 2) is the biblical attempt to deal with the problem. Rabbinic literature contains a variety of views on the subject. Some rabbis regarded death as a punishment meted out to Adam and his descendants because of his sin in the Garden of Eden (Gen. R. 16:6), but others held that death was an appropriate termination for a finite creature and that it had been preordained at the time of creation (Gen. R. 30:8; Ex. R. 2:4). Death is the price paid for new birth, for the continued emergence of a new generation. Death must be deemed a good, noted Maimonides, since it is the means of "perpetuating existence and the continuity of individual beings through the emergence of one after the withdrawal of the other" (Guide 3:10). Death was also robbed of its terror by the belief that after death individuals survive as incorporeal spirits (Ket. 103a; Ber. 18b). Related to this was the belief in retributive judgment. The righteous would be rewarded with eternal bliss in paradise and the wicked, punished in hell (see garden of eden , gehinnom , and beatitude ). The final mitigation of the terror of death in rabbinic literature was the belief in the resurrection of the dead and the world to come. At the end of the historical process God will create the dead anew reuniting body and soul, and then the resurrected dead will enjoy the bliss of the "world to come." The literalness of the belief in the resurrection appears to have been questioned by some rabbis. Thus, one view expressed in the Talmud states that in the world to come "there is no eating or drinking, no begetting children, no commerce, envy, hatred, or competition, but only this: that the righteous sit with crowns on their heads and delight in the splendor of God's presence" (Ber. 17a). The technical term for resurrection is teḤiyyat ha-metim, literally, "the revival of the dead." But there were Jewish philosophers, beginning with Philo, who interpreted this figuratively as referring to the immortality of the soul. Maimonides, especially, inveighed against the notion of a physical restoration as man's final state, and insisted that ultimate happiness consists of the incorporeal existence of men's intellect, attained by pursuing a life of virtue and wisdom. To accentuate the rejection of a belief in physical resurrection, the Reform liturgy drops the praise of God as the meḥayyeh ha-metim ("He who revives the dead") from the Amidah and substitutes note'a be-tokhenu hayyei olam ("… who has implanted within us eternal life"). The Reconstructionist prayer book substitutes for mehayyeh ha-metim, zokher yeẓirav le-ḥayyim be-raḥamim ("…who in love rememberest Thy creatures to life"). But many Jewish modernists use the traditional text, interpreting it, no doubt, as an allusion to the soul's immortality . -BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Fackenheim, in: Commentary, 39 (1965), 49–55. (Ben Zion Bokser)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KETUBBOT — KETUBBAH (Heb.כְּתֻבּוֹת; Marriage Contracts ), second tractate in the order Nashim, dealing with rights and duties arising out of the contract of marriage. Ketubbah, literally, that which is written, denotes in this tractate not so much the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KETUBBAH — (Heb. כְּתֻבָּה), a document recording the financial obligations which the husband undertakes toward his wife in respect of, and consequent to, their marriage, obligations which in principle are imposed on him by law. For the ketubbah of a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • GENIZAH, CAIRO — Introduction The term genizah is a word shortened from the rabbinical Hebrew phrase bet genizah (see also genizah ). Its counterpart in late biblical Hebrew is genez (pl. genazim, ginzei) which in Esther evidently means a treasury, as well as the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW — This entry is arranged according to the following outline: hebrew illumination in hellenistic times character of hebrew manuscript illumination materials and techniques oriental school spanish illumination french school german school italian… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Ketubah — A ketubah (.] The ketubah became a mechanism whereby the amount due to the wife (the dower) came to be paid in the event of the cessation of marriage, either by the death of the husband or divorce. It may be noted that the biblical bride price… …   Wikipedia

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